Installing Windows 10X (emulator image) on real hardware
Here's some quick notes on installing Windows 10X on real hardware. For this example, we're assuming a system with no other critical disks installed, and a helpful host system being around to set up the initial image.
- Windows 10 Manganese build (195xx).
- Utility USB flash drive of ~32GB+.
- CPU with Hyper-V support for VAIL.
- Graphics card with DCHU drivers available.
- UEFI system firmware with the ability to disable Secure Boot.
- Boot drive larger than 128 GiB. An 128 GB SSD usually isn't.
- Preferred: 4Kn boot drive. We'll provide steps a bit later for converting the image.
Fetch and mount the emulator image
Make sure you have a clean
Flash.vhdx from the W10X emulator. Copy it someplace, and preferably keep another backup as well.
Mount it using PowerShell (as administrator):
Check if the emulator image is mounted correctly:
Get-StoragePool -FriendlyName OSPool
This should look like the following:
FriendlyName OperationalStatus HealthStatus IsPrimordial IsReadOnly Size AllocatedSize ------------ ----------------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ------------- OSPool OK Healthy False False 127.9 GB 21.81 GB
Gather UpdateApp and verify it works
diskpart so you can mount MainOS:
list volume # select the volume called MainOS select volume 42 # assuming M: is free assign letter=m exit
From the MainOS partition, go and hunt down the following files and drop them in a standalone folder (for example,
- IUSpaces_vb.dll (copy and rename IUSpaces.dll)
cmd.exe as administrator, go to the tool directory, and try getting the installed packages on the image:
cd /d X:\WCOS\Tools updateapp getinstalledpackages
The result should look a lot like the following:
UpdateApp - Update Application for Windows Mobile [00:00:00] Loaded servicing stack from X:\wcos\tools with session name IUPackageInfoSession_EFIESP [00:00:00] External storage staging directory is: (null) [00:00:00] Closing session IUPackageInfoSession_EFIESP [00:00:00] Loaded servicing stack from X:\wcos\tools with session name IUPackageInfoSession_MainOS [00:00:00] External storage staging directory is: (null) [00:00:01] Closing session IUPackageInfoSession_MainOS 164 packages: Microsoft-OneCore-HyperV-Guest-UpdateOS-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~en-US~10.0.19563.1000, UpdateOS Microsoft-OneCore-HyperV-Guest-UpdateOS-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, UpdateOS Microsoft-OneCore-ServicingStack-UpdateOS-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, updateos Microsoft-OneCore-ServicingStack-UpdateOS-UX-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, updateos Microsoft-OneCoreUpdateOS-Product-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~en-US~10.0.19563.1000, updateos Microsoft-OneCoreUpdateOS-Product-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, updateos Microsoft-Windows-OneCoreUpdateOS-ImageCustomization-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, updateos Microsoft-Composable-ModernPC-BootEnvironment-Core-CodeIntegrity-Sbcp-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, EFIESP Microsoft-OneCore-BcdBootoption-Package~31bf3856ad364e35~amd64~~10.0.19563.1000, EFIESP [...] getinstalledpackages completed successfully command took 7 seconds
If it does, congratulations! You can move on to the next step.
Inject graphics and network drivers
For this example we'll show the Intel HD Graphics driver, but you might need to add more INFs depending on your hardware. If you can't find the right INFs, why are you even doing this?
Place extracted Intel drivers in a directory, so that you have e.g.
iigd_dch.inf, and note down the values for 'Provider' and 'DriverVer'. For me, those were:
The provider name is an indirected variable here, so we go and find what
%Intel% meant as well. A bit below in the INF, we find the following:
Intel = "Intel Corporation"
Good! Now, invoke
updateapp with the data we've just discovered to install the INF to the BSP partition in your WCOS image:
updateapp install "DriverPackage|X:\WCOS\DHCUDrivers\Graphics\iigd_dch.inf|Intel_Corporation-iigd_dch.inf~amd64~126.96.36.19958~bsp|0"
Note the recurrence of
188.8.131.5218. The installation process will complain with an error code of
c0880005 if you get the 'keyform' wrong.
The general rule for inf file names and provider names in the 'keyform' is the following:
- Any space in the inf name or the provider name must get replaced by an underscore '_'
- Any dash in the inf name or the provider name must get replaced by an underscore '_'
After you've installed your favorite driver packages, we can prepare the utility flash drive.
Make a utility flash drive
Gather the following assets into a directory we'll label
From an ISO of Windows 10 19559 AMD64 (or higher - see UUPDump or similar for generating these):
For later servicing, your WCOS\Tools folder. Use a hex editor to replace any mention of the Unicode string
X:\Windowsin UpdateAPI.dll and UpdateApp.exe with something like
X:\Wbndows, or expect any servicing tasks to fail.
An x64 EFI shell. Rename EFI\boot\bootx64.efi to EFI\boot\winx64.efi, and name the shell as EFI\boot\bootx64.efi. You'll need the shell in order to ever boot regular Windows again (including PE).
A file called
startup.nshin the root:
dmpstore -d SecureBootPlatformID fs0:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs1:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs2:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs3:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs4:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs5:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs6:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs7:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs8:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fs9:\efi\boot\winx64.efi fsA:\efi\boot\winx64.efi
If you are having troubles getting back to Windows PE/Windows Desktop, you may also try the following extra commands in startup.nsh: (Warning: these will kill every variables you have saved on your system)
dmpstore -d -guid BA57E015-65B3-4C3C-B274-659192F699E3 dmpstore -d -guid 77FA9ABD-0359-4D32-BD60-28F4E78F784B dmpstore -d -guid EAEC226F-C9A3-477A-A826-DDC716CDC0E3
gdisk64.exe from GPT fdisk.
- Connect your UFD.
select diskthe right disk, or you'll lose all data on it and will have to do a long partition scan to have any hopes of retrieving your data, and
create partition primary size=5000,
format fs=fat32 quick,
assign letter=yto make a bootable FAT32 partition.
create partition primary,
format fs=exfat quick,
assign letter=zto make an exFAT partition to house the VHDX.
Putting things in place
Place your boot drive directory on the drive you called
Dismount-VHD "X:\WCOS\Flash.vhdx in your PowerShell to unmount the VHDX, and copy the VHDX to
Z:. You should now have a tree structure similar to:
Y:\ Boot\ EFI\ Sources\ Tools\ startup.nsh Z:\ Flash.vhdx
Eject and unplug the UFD.
Use your throwaway laptop or other modern enough system with larger-than-128GB system drive. Make sure Secure Boot is off.
Boot Windows PE
Boot it on the target. Really. Once you get into Setup, press
Shift-F10 to open a command prompt. Go back and open another, for good measure. Alt-Tab works for switching here.
Copy the VHD (destructive!)
Find out where your USB flash drive is mounted. This will involve doing a lot of the following:
C: dir D: dir E: dir F: dir
Here, we'll assume the boot volume is D: and the volume with Flash.vhdx is E:.
diskpart, and attach the VHD:
select vdisk file=E:\flash.vhdx attach vdisk readonly # wait a minute or so list disk # if MainOS etc. show up as online, good!
Note down the ID of a 2048 MB disk with a 2048 MB free space, and subtract 1 from it.
# note: there's no 16 Disk 17 Online 2048 MB 2048 MB
The ID to note down, therefore, is 16. Also, note down the ID of the target disk (3 in this case).
Wipe it. Yes. That's data loss for you. Make sure you've got backups of anything important on there.
select disk 3 clean convert mbr exit
Copy the VHDX's content to your disk:
E:\Tools\ddrelease64 if=\\.\physicaldrive16 of=\\.\physicaldrive3 bs=8M --progress
... and go have a hot beverage while waiting for this to hit 131072M.
Rebuild the GPT (for 512-byte disks only)
You probably have a 512-byte disk, so you're going to have to rebuild the GPT. Yay!
Run commands along the following:
> E:\tools\gdisk64 -l \\.\physicaldrive16 [..] Number Start (sector) End (sector) Size Code Name 1 512 8703 32.0 MiB EF00 BS_EFIESP 2 8704 33554426 128.0 GiB 4202 OSPool
Remember the numbers (start, end, code and name) for each partition. Multiply the numbers by 8 (since 4K/512 = 8) - so you get 4096, 69624, etc.
Now, we'll create a new GPT for the target disk:
E:\tools\gdisk64 \\.\physicaldrive3 # accept any warning x z E:\tools\gdisk64 \\.\physicaldrive3 # accept the warning n 1 4096 69631 EF00 n 2 69632 268435415 4202 c 1 BS_EFIESP c 2 OSPool p # check if it makes sense - matches the above but with different sector numbers w
Exit all open windows, and your system should reboot.
Boot Windows PE, again
Boot into Windows PE again - not the internal disk you just overwrote. Verify in
diskpart if you can
list volume and it'll show MainOS etc. without you having attached the VHD.
Remove WCOS Security
In Windows PE, open
diskpart and do
select volume. Find the volume named
ÈFIESP we will assume here its volume id is 6, yours may be different. Then we run
select volume 6 and
list volume again to find the drive letter of EFIESP, in our case it's
E:, yours may be different.
Delete the following file:
You may additionally replace
winsipolicy.p7b with the one from a desktop sku (the file is located in the same folder).
OK, now you can boot your internal disk. If you haven't followed the Remove WCOS Security instructions, this will set a Secure Boot policy value, however, so you'll have to boot your utility flash drive again if you want to boot any other Windows media (or otherwise execute the
If everything's right, you should be booting into Windows 10X, and your graphics adapter might even be working.